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In a Johns Hopkins Medicine study of patients who underwent adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, pre-operative opioid use and pain duration of four or more years were independently associated with higher odds of chronic post-surgery opioid use.

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Source: MedicalXpress

  • American Osteopathic Association
  • American Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics
  • American Medical Association
  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
  • North American Spine Society